MIDAS-supported researchers recently published findings that used single-cell analysis of 30,000 cells from mouse testes to improve the understanding of spermatogenesis.
Description: Engineers are encountering and generating a ever-growing body of data and recognizing the utility of applying data science (DataSci) approaches to extract knowledge from that data. A common barrier to learning DataSci is the stack of prerequisite courses that cannot fit into the typical engineering student schedule. This class will remove this barrier by, in one semester, covering essential foundational concepts that are not part of many engineering disciplines’ core curricula. These include: good programming practices, data structures, linear algebra, numerical methods, algorithms, probability, and statistics. The class’s focus will be on how these topics relate to data science and to provide context for further self-study.
Eligibility: College of Engineering students, pending instructor approval.
More information: http://myumi.ch/LzqPq
Instructor: Heather Mayes, Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering, firstname.lastname@example.org.
“The WHPC Chapter Pilot will enable us to reach an ever-increasing community of women, provide these women with the networks that we recognize are essential for them excelling in their career, and retaining them in the workforce.” says Dr. Sharon Broude Geva, WHPC’s Director of Chapters and Director of Advanced Research Computing (ARC) at the University of Michigan (U-M). “At the same time, we envisage that the new Chapters will be able to tailor their activities to the needs of their local community, as we know that there is no ‘one size fits all’ solution to diversity.”
“At WHPC we are delighted to be accepting the University of Michigan as a Chapter under the pilot program, and working with them to build a sustainable solution to diversifying the international HPC landscape” said Dr. Toni Collis, Chair and co-founder of WHPC, and Chief Business Development Officer at Appentra Solutions.
The process of selecting organizations to participate in the program accounted for potential conflicts of interest; Geva did not vote on U-M’s application.
Women in High Performance Computing (WHPC) was created with the vision to encourage women to participate in the HPC community by providing fellowship, education, and support to women and the organizations that employ them. Through collaboration and networking, WHPC strives to bring together women in HPC and technical computing while encouraging women to engage in outreach activities and improve the visibility of inspirational role models.
WHPC has launched a pilot program for groups to become Affiliates or Chapters. The program will share the knowledge and expertise of WHPC as well as help to tailor activities and develop diversity and inclusion goals suitable to the needs of local HPC communities. During the pilot, WHPC will work with the Chapters and Affiliates to support and promote the work of women in their organizations, develop crucial role models, and assist employers in the recruitment and retention of a diverse and inclusive HPC workforce.
WHPC is stewarded by EPCC at the University of Edinburgh. For more information visit http://www.womeninhpc.org.
For more information on the U-M chapter, contact Dr. Geva at email@example.com.
Several U-M faculty affiliated with MIDAS will participate in the KDD2018 Conference in London in August. The meeting is held by the Associate for Computing Machinery’s Special Interest Group in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD).
U-M researchers had the following papers accepted:
Learning Adversarial Networks for Semi-Supervised Text Classification via Policy Gradient
Yan Li (U-M); Jieping Ye (U-M)
Chen Luo (Rice University); Zhengzhang Chen (NEC Laboratories America); Lu-An Tang (NEC Laboratories America); Anshumali Shrivastava (Rice University); Zhichun Li (NEC Laboratories America); Haifeng Chen (NEC Laboratories America); Jieping Ye (U-M)
Jiaqi Ma(U-M); Zhe Zhao (Google); Xinyang Yi (Google); Jilin Chen (Google); Lichan Hong (Google); Ed Chi (Google)
Jiaxuan Wang (U-M); Jeeheh Oh (U-M); Haozhu Wang (U-M); Jenna Wiens (U-M)
Ian Fox (U-M); Lynn Ang (U-M); Mamta Jaiswal (U-M); Rodica Pop-Busui (U-M); Jenna Wiens (U-M)
Jacob Abernethy (Georgia Institute of Technology); Alex Chojnacki (U-M); Arya Farahi (U-M); Eric Schwartz (U-M); Jared Webb (Brigham Young University)
Tara Safavi (U-M); Maryam Davoodi (Purdue University); Danai Koutra (U-M)
In addition, U-M Professor Jieping Ye will present at the event’s Artificial Intelligence in Transportation tutorial, and U-M Assistant Professor Qiaozhu Mei will speak as part of Deep Learning Day.
Dr. Ivo Dinov, professor of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, Human Behavior, and Biological Science, and associate director of MIDAS, recently published an article on the training and education curricula needs of data science.
Title: Quant data science meets dexterous artistry
Published in: International Journal of Data Science and Analytics
Author: Ivo D Dinov
Abstract: Data science is a bridge discipline connecting fundamental science, applied disciplines, and the arts. The demand for novel data science methods is well established. However, there is much less agreement on the core aspects of representation, modeling, and analytics that involve huge and heterogeneous datasets. The scientific community needs to build consensus about data science education and training curricula, including the necessary entry matriculation prerequisites and the expected learning competency outcomes needed to tackle complex Big Data challenges. To meet the rapidly increasing demand for effective evidence-based practice and data analytic methods, research teams, funding agencies, academic institutions, politicians, and industry leaders should embrace innovation, promote high-risk projects, join forces to expand the technological capacity, and enhance the workforce skills.
The U-M Statistics in the Community (STATCOM) group was recently featured in AMSTATNEWS, the magazine of the American Statistical Association.
Read the article at https://magazine.amstat.org/blog/2018/04/01/statcom-universities/.
STATCOM is supported in part by MIDAS.
MIDAS-affiliated researchers recently published a review of current and future applications of deep learning in pharmacogenomics.
Title: Deep learning in pharmacogenomics: from gene regulation to patient stratification
Published in: Pharmacogenomics, April 2018
Authors: Alexandr A. Kalinin, Gerald A. Higgins, Narathip Reamaroon, S. M. Reza Soroushmehr, Ari Allyn-Feuer, Ivo D. Dinov, Kayvan Najarian, Brian D. Athey, Alexandr A Kalinin, Gerald A Higgins, Sayedmohammadreza Soroushmehr, Ivo D Dinov, Brian D Athey
Abstract: This Perspective provides examples of current and future applications of deep learning in pharmacogenomics, including: identification of novel regulatory variants located in noncoding domains of the genome and their function as applied to pharmacoepigenomics; patient stratification from medical records; and the mechanistic prediction of drug response, targets and their interactions. Deep learning encapsulates a family of machine learning algorithms that has transformed many important subfields of artificial intelligence over the last decade, and has demonstrated breakthrough performance improvements on a wide range of tasks in biomedicine. We anticipate that in the future, deep learning will be widely used to predict personalized drug response and optimize medication selection and dosing, using knowledge extracted from large and complex molecular, epidemiological, clinical and demographic datasets.
The image competition for the Coalition for Academic Scientific Computation (CASC) 2019 annual brochure is now open. Winning images will be featured in the brochure, which is distributed to industry, government and academia. An image from U-M Aerospace Engineering Professor Joaquim Martins was on the cover of the 2016 edition, and several U-M investigators have had their work featured in the brochure in other years.
Images will be judged on the following criteria:
- Illustrative of research underway at the center submitting the proposed images
- Focus on research that offers a broad representation of what CASC members have undertaken
- Timeliness of visualization relative to events currently in the news
- Exhibits intellectual merit
- Provides scientific, cultural, economic impact
- Compelling, visually interesting, lively, colorful images in a high-resolution format
Please send potential submissions to Dan Meisler, ARC Communications Manager, at firstname.lastname@example.org. The deadline is June 11, 2018.
Advanced Research Computing – Technology Services (ARC-TS) at the University of Michigan has become the first U.S. academic institution to join the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), a foundation that advances the development and use of cloud native applications and services. Founded in 2015, CNCF is part of the Linux Foundation.
CNCF announced ARC-TS’s membership at the KubeCon and CloudNativeCon event in Copenhagen. A video of the opening remarks by CNCF Executive Director Dan Kohn can be viewed on the event website.
“Our membership in the CNCF signals our commitment to bringing cloud computing and containers technology to researchers across campus,” said Brock Palen, Director of ARC-TS. “Kubernetes and other CNCF platforms are becoming crucial tools for advanced machine learning, pipelining, and other research methods. We also look forward to bring an academic perspective to the foundation.”
ARC-TS’s membership and participation in the group signals its adoption and commitment to cloud-native technologies and practices. Users of containers and other CNCF services will have access to experts in the field.
Membership gives the U-M research community input into in the continuing development of cloud-native applications, and within CNCF-managed and ancillary projects. U-M is the second academic institution to join the foundation, and the only one in the U.S.
Several University of Michigan researchers, including faculty affiliated with MIDAS, recently received support from the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative under its Human Cell Atlas project.
The project seeks to create a shared, open reference atlas of all cells in the healthy human body as a resource for studies of health and disease. The project is funding a variety of software tools and analytic methods. The U-M projects are listed below:
Identifying genetic markers: dimension reduction and feature selection for sparse data
Investigator: Anna Gilbert, Department of Mathematics, MIDAS Core Faculty Member
Description: One of the modalities that scientists participating in the Human Cell Atlas will use to gather data is single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). The analysis, however, of scRNA-seq data poses novel biological and algorithmic challenges. The data are high dimensional and not necessarily in distinct clusters (indeed, some cell types are exist along a continuum or developmental trajectory). In addition, data values are missing. To analyze this data, we must adjust our dimension reduction algorithms accordingly and either fill in the values or determine quantitatively the impact of the missing values. Furthermore, none of these steps is performed in isolation; they are part of a principled data analysis pipeline. This work will leverage over a decade of modern, sparsity-based machine learning methods and apply them to dimension reduction, marker selection, and data imputation for scRNA-seq data. In one of our two feature selection methods, we adapt a 1-bit compressed sensing algorithm (1CS) introduced by Genzel and Conrad. In order to select markers, the algorithm finds optimal hyperplanes that separate the given clusters of cells and that depend only on a small number of genes. The second method is based on the mutual information (MI) framework developed in. This algorithm greedily builds a set of markers out of a set of statistically significant genes that maximizes information about the target clusters and minimizes redundancy between markers. The imputation algorithms use sparse data models to impute missing values and are tailored to integer counts.
Computational tools for integrating single-cell RNA sequencing studies with genome-wide association studies
Investigator: Xiang Zhou, Biostatistics
Description: Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) has emerged as a powerful tool in genomics. Unlike previous bulk RNAseq that measures average expression levels across many cells, scRNAseq can measure gene expression at the single cell level. The high resolution of scRNAseq has thus far transformed genomics: scRNAseq has been applied to classify novel cell-subpopulations and states, quantify progressive gene expression, perform spatial mapping, identify differentially expressed genes, and investigate the genetic basis of expression variation. While many computational tools have been developed for analyzing scRNAseq data, tools for effective integrative analysis of scRNAseq with other existing genetic/genomic data types are underdeveloped. Here, we propose to extend our previous integrative methods and develop novel computational tools for integrating scRNAseq data with genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Our proposed tools will identify cell-subpopulations relevant to GWAS diseases or traits, facilitate the interpretation of association results, catalyze more powerful future association studies, and help understand disease etiology and the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. The proposed tools will be applied to integrate summary statistics from various GWASs with fine-scale cell-subpopulations identified from the Human Cell Atlas (HCA) project, to maximize the impact of HCA and facilitate our understanding of the genetic architecture of various human traits and diseases — a question of central importance to human health.
Joint analysis of single cell and bulk RNA data via matrix factorization
Investigator: Clayton Scott, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIDAS Affiliated Faculty
Description: Single cell RNA sequence (ssRNAseq) data is a recently developed platform that enables the measurement of thousands of gene expression levels across individual cells in a tissue sample of interest. The ability to quantify gene expression at the cell level has great potential for advancing our understanding of the cellular processes that characterize a broad range of biological phenomena. However, compared with older bulk RNA technology, which measures expression levels of large numbers of cells in aggregate, ssRNAseq data has higher levels of measurement noise, which complicates its analysis. Furthermore, the problem of inferring cell type from ssRNAseq data is an unsupervised machine learning problem, an already difficult problem even without high measurement noise. To address these issues, we propose a mathematical and algorithmic framework to infer cellular characteristics by analyzing single cell and bulk RNA data simultaneously, via an approach grounded in matrix factorization. The developed algorithms will be evaluated on real data gathered by researchers at the University of Michigan who study breast cancer and spermatogenesis.
Integrating single cell profiles across modalities using manifold alignment
Investigator: Joshua Welch, Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics
Description: Integrating the variation underlying different types of single cell measurements is a critical step toward a comprehensive catalog of human cell types. The ideal approach to construct a cell type atlas would use high-throughput single cell multi-omic profiling to simultaneously measure all cellular modalities of interest within each cell. Although this approach is currently out of reach, it is possible to separately perform high-throughput transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic measurements at the single cell level. Computationally integrating multiple data modalities measured on different individual cells can circumvent the experimental challenges of multi-omic profiling. If different types of single cell measurements are performed on distinct single cells from a common population, each modality will sample a similar set of cells. Matching up similar cells to infer multimodal profiles enables some analyses for which multi-omic profiling is desirable, including multimodal cell type definition and studying covariance among different data types. Manifold alignment is a powerful computational technique for integrating multiple sources of data that describe the same set of events by discovering the common manifold (general geometric shape) that underlies them. Previously, we showed that transcriptomic and epigenomic measurements performed on distinct single cells share underlying sources of variation. We developed a computational method, MATCHER, which uses manifold alignment to integrate cell trajectories constructed from these measurements and infer single cell multi-omic profiles. Here, we will extend this approach to match multimodal single cell profiles sampled from an entire tissue.
Computational methods to enable robust and cost-effective multiplexing of single cell rna-seq experiments in population-scale
Investigator: Hyun Min Kang, Biostatistics
Description: With the advent of single-cell genomic technologies, Human Cell Atlas (HCA) seeks to create a reference maps of each individual cell type and to understand how they develop and maintain their functions, how they interact with each other, and which environmental and/or genetic changes trigger molecular dysfunction that leads to disease. To achieve these goals, it becomes increasingly important to creatively integrate single-cell genomic technologies with novel computational methods to maximize the potential of the new technological advances. Recently, our group has developed a computational tool demuxlet that enable population- scale multiplexing of droplet-based single-cell RNA-seq (dscRNA-seq) experiments. Our approach harnesses natural genetic variation carried within dscRNA-seq reads to multiplex cells from many samples in a single library prep, and statistically deconvolute the sample identity of each barcoded droplet while filtering out multiplets (droplets that contain two or more cells). In this proposal, we aim to further extend our method to increase the accuracy by harnessing cell-specific expression levels, and to eliminate the constraint requiring external genotype data. We will enable application of these methods through production, distribution, and support of efficient, well-documented, open-source software; and test these tools through analysis of simulated data and of real dscRNA-seq data.